Think…think…!! theogony. he represents death over all. There are numerous ancient tablets and other sources where Enlil is mentioned as the ‘King of all lands’. She might be the goddess of love and sexuality, but she was not considered the mother goddess or the goddess of marriage. The goddess of beauty, sex, love, and fertility, Ishtar, was the East Semitic version of Inanna, the Sumerian goddess; the Northwest Semitic goddess was called Astarte; and the Armenian goddess was called Astghik. He was the husband of Goddess Ningal, and father of Inanna and Utu. Ea lives in Apsu, the primal waters below the Earth. (Inanna, Goddess of War, atop her zodiac symbol Leo, her 8-Pointed Star symbol above her head) Inanna handed over victory in strife and battle to a rebellious land. Nanshe, the Goddess of Social Justice and Prophecy. In the religion of Mesopotamian people, there were innumerable gods and goddesses, each of whom personified a specific aspect or element. The Sumerians were the first known people to settle in Mesopotamia over 7,000 years ago. Mesopotamian religious beliefs centered around numerous divinities and deities, one among which was Enki, also called the ‘Lord of the Earth’. All Rights Reserved. We cannot guarantee that every book is … She was worshiped by the people of Upper Mesopotamia in the Assyrian cities of Ashur, Arbela, and Nineveh. Her temple was situated at Sirara near Nina. In the Epic of Gilgamesh, she is represented as a spoiled and short-tempered femme fatale. The goddess Inanna’s descent to the underworld is one of two myths that revolve around Irkalla. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. He was believed to be the benefactor of humans, listening to their prayers, bringing life from death, and protecting livestock and agriculture. He was worshiped by natives of Assyria, Ebla and Ugarit. how the elements of the universe are created. The Omega can be taken as the uterus, the knife being used to cut the umbilical cord. Mesopotamian Gods and Goddesses. He held such power that his name is mentioned in the famous 18th century BC law code of Hammurabi. Inanna travels to the underworld with the aim of extending her powers. Also Read: 15 Interesting Things about Ancient Chinese Mythology. As goddess of prophecy, she determined the future by oneiromancy, the process of interpreting dreams. Index of 255 Mesopotamian Gods – Names for the Gods & Goddesses, A “Who’s Who” of The Anunnaki Giants on Earth Colony Index Of Texts 148 Minor Gods, Quotes From Texts 47 Top Minor Anunnaki Gods; Slide-Shows & Texts (Modern Pic, Not Authentic Artifact) Time-Line of The Gods … Gods, Goddesses, Demons and Monsters The people of Mesopotamia believed that their world was controlled by gods and goddesses, demons and monsters. genealogy of the Gods. Consult Godchecker’s complete alphabetical list of Mesopotamian god and goddess names. Tiamat (f.) married to Apsu and is the goddess of salt water and the ocean. Price New from Used from Library Binding "Please retry" — — He is goddess Atargatis’s consort and was the main god of the western Semites. Ea. In the epic tale of Gilgamesh, Ishtar is represented as a woman who gets rejected at the hands of Gilgamesh, the hero and turns vengeful. She is the oldest of all the goddesses in the Mesopotamian pantheon. Ancients hymns also show him to be the god of devastation, hunger, and pestilence. Healing gods and goddesses: see Baba, Damu, Gula/Ninkarrak, Ninisinna. Once the killings were over, the god gave back the tablet to Enlil. Even her priests were granted the gift of prophecy after performing certain rituals that involved death and resurrection. In the epic myth of Enuma Elis, Tiamat is the antagonist and fights Marduk. Sin (aka Sumerian "Nanna/Suen"), the God of the moon 2. The mythological god, as per many sources, was believed to have lived in Abzu and was the protector of Eridu, a southern city of Mesopotamia. Nergal is known as the Lord of the underworld, but also as the god of death, plague and pestilence. Neti follows these instructions and when Inanna reaches the throne, she is naked and powerless. Another source says that she is the daughter of Antu and Anu. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. She sends two sexless creatures to revive her younger sister with water and food. Out of clay, Enki created the first set of humans to serve the gods. Some claim that he was worshiped as the Lord ghost, while, others regarded him to be the Lord of air. The Sumerians believed that Anu was the god that ruled over heaven, and was the supreme powerful entity that commanded all other gods and goddesses. The doers of the deeds (creative or otherwise decisive acts), and thus the subjects of the praises, are the gods. On the other hand, she symbolized chaos. In order to bring him back, she agrees to take his place in Kur for half a year so that he can return to heaven and to Inanna. Her symbols were the eight-pointed star and a lion. The people trusted the priests and Top 10 Ancient Mesopotamian Goddesses 1. Other depictions show him with wings and solar disc. Copyright © (2016 - 2020) Historyly.com. In Sumerian mythology, Ereshkigal or Irkalla was considered the... 2. And, he did this all simply because he was irritated at humans for making loud noises that interrupted his sleep. The goddess Nisaba was their chief deity who personified knowledge. Adad or Ishkur - god of storms, venerated as a supreme power especially in Syria and Lebanon Though, in 2700 BC, Nisaba was worshiped as a grain goddess, however, later, she came to be associated with the city of Eresh in Mesopotamia as the leading deity of scribes and keeper of mortal accounts. Nevertheless, some gods and goddesses feature more significantly in the religion of Sumer, and thus may be considered to be the main deities of the Sumerian pantheon. Anu(An) is the God of the sky. From her split body emerges the earth, heaven, while, from her eyes, the rivers Tigris and Euphrates flow away. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. Some of the Sumerian gods and goddesses included: Anu - Sometimes called An, Anu was the god of the heavens and king of the gods. Nanshe was the daughter of Ninhursag, the mother goddess, and Enki, the god of water, knowledge, mischief, crafts and creation. The goddess is regarded as one of the oldest worshiped deities in Babylon. Most Assyrian artworks depict him as a fish god. Sacred Number- 60 This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. A banquet was held by the gods which Ereshkigal did not attend. Shamash was considered the patron deity of justice. There are mentions of Enki in numerous Sumerian texts that speak about the power of his virility. Like Dumuzid she was mainly a rural deity. Ninhursag is also named as the mother of men and gods and is called different things in different myths. Image Credit: deviantart In the religion of Mesopotamian people, there were innumerable gods and goddesses, each of whom personified a specific aspect or element. Called Mulliltu in Assyria, Ninlil is the wife of Enlil. The Assyrian empires like Middle Assyrian Empire, the Empire of Shamshi-Adad I, and Neo-Assyrian Empire made Ashur the chief god of Mesopotamia and he reigned supreme. The Sumerian Pantheon. Mesopotamians believed in living life in accordance with the will of gods. Apsu (m.) God of fresh water. He later married her and they ruled the underworld together. When Enki, the god of water, is informed about it, Neti, the gatekeeper, is ordered to close all the gates and open them one at a time as Inanna removes pieces of her clothing. Her associations with Virgo have been talked about by many scribes and this association has resulted in the present-day constellation of Virgo. Also Read: 15 Interesting Facts about Norse Mythology. Mesopotamia, (meaning the land between two rivers) is the region between these two rivers,and has been since a … While they are trying to take her out of the underworld, two demons come and ask for someone else as her replacement. Gods and Goddesses Since approximately 4500 BC there have been settlements on the edges of the marshes where the Tigris and the Euphrates reach the Persian Gulf. PLAY. As goddess of social justice and balance, Nanshe provided help to widows, acted as a parent to orphans, saved people from troubled regions, and provided advice to those in debt. The patron goddess of beer, Ninkasi was one among the chief deities worshiped massively in ancient Mesopotamia. When Inanna finds out that her husband did not mourn her death, she tells the demons to take him in her place. She was a prominent goddess in 3500 BC until the spread of Christianity from the first to the fifth centuries. Enlil was a supreme entity worshiped primarily in Nippur, the city that he patronized. Ereshkigal brings Inanna back to life. cosmology. The 10 Oldest Ancient Civilizations That Have Ever Existed, Top 10 Most Worshiped Ancient Egyptian Gods and Goddesses, Top 10 Inventions and Discoveries of Ancient Greece…, Top 11 Inventions and Discoveries of Mesopotamia, Epic of Gilgamesh: Summary in 10 Interesting Points, Top 21 Fascinating Facts about the Ancient Persian Empire, Top 12 Surprising and Fascinating Facts about Ancient Sumer, Top 13 Surprising and Fascinating Facts about Ancient Babylonia, Top 12 Fascinating Facts about Ancient Mesopotamia. The father of the gods and the god of the firmament. All these brothers were also gods of underworld and irrigation. In order to throw some light on Mesopotamian mythology, here is a list of 10 goddesses from the Mesopotamian pantheon: In Sumerian mythology, Ereshkigal or Irkalla was considered the queen of the land of the dead. Before her death, she brings monsters into the Mesopotamian pantheon: the first dragons whose bodies were filled with venom. The religion of Mesopotamian people was dominated by the presence of several prime gods and goddesses. Inanna is found guilty by the seven judges and sentenced to death, her corpse to be hung from a hook so that everyone could see it. Sin’s temples or sanctuaries were located in Ur, Urum, Nippur and Babylon. She has been called various names such as Ninmakh, Mama, Makh, Aruru, and Mamma. The civilization of Babylon, as we know it, lasted from about 2350 to 1595 BCE, when it was sacked and later ruled by the Hittites. Mesopotamian Gods & Goddesses (Gods and Goddesses of Mythology) Library Binding – January 1, 2014 by Vincent Hale (Editor) 4.5 out of 5 stars 2 ratings. Historyly.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com. It was between 3500 BC to 400 BC that Mesopotamia came to be heavily influenced by these deities that represented many a things and beliefs. For making her pregnant, Enlil was taken to the underworld with Ninlil. Ancient Mesopotamian Gods and Goddesses. Hadad was depicted with a bearded look, with thunderbolt and a club clenched in his fists. The mountains get created from her breasts, while, her spit gives birth to mist. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. Part of the Sumerian pantheon, she was known as the goddess who could satisfy the heart’s desires, and because of her involvement in it, the art of brewing in Sumer was protected and sanctioned by Ninkasi and two other goddesses. Shulmanu – God of the Underworld, Fertility and War, 14. Some texts claim he was the supreme ruler of heaven. The fearsome demon who guards the Cedar Forest forbidden to mortals. Ishtar – Goddess of Fertility, Love, and War, 7. Representing a bull, Sin or Nanna was the protector and patron deity of Ur. She is mentioned in several works of the Seleucid era. She gave birth to the moon god, Nanna or Suen. There are other mentions of him in various Akkadian texts where he is depicted as a destroyer. 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She demands to be Gilgamesh’s consort and on his refusal, Ishtar unleashes the Bull of Heaven which results in the death of the wild man, Enkidu. Inana/Ištar. The Sumerians were well known scientists and inventors of ancient world. The Assyrian kings who came to power after 14th century BC associated their names with this god. Centuries old depictions show her carrying a double-headed mace and sometimes a lion-headed scimitar. In the law codes, Shamash is shown as the ruler and controller of the universe. She was also related to dreams and was considered as a mother goddess. Being the goddess of the underworld, she sent her messenger Namtar who was treated well by all the gods and goddesses except for Nergal. There is a poem that is dedicated to Ninkasi, called Hymn to Ninkasi that honors the goddess and showers praises on her and her craft at brewing beer. There were hundreds of gods who were responsible for everything in the world, from rivers and trees to making bread and pottery. It was Marduk that slayed goddess Tiamat and split her body into earth and heaven. The gods of the Mesopotamian region were by no means uniform in name, power, provenance or status in the hierarchy. The Mesopotamian goddesses have many stories attached to them and have associations with almost everything on earth. Apart from being called Su’en or Sin, he was also called Dilimbabbar. This symbolizes her role as a mother. Du Bois Life and Contribution, 15 Most Disastrous Pandemics That Changed History, 15 Fearless Female Warriors of Ancient World. The daughter of Uruk and Inanna, Ninkasi was born to be one of the healers of Enki’s eight wounds. Ištaran. Tiamat- The Goddess of Salt Sea and Mother of Several Deities. In most records and artworks, Shamash is depicted as a bearded old man sitting on a throne. It spoke about how Enlil brought about destruction on humans by bringing a devastating flood. He was also regarded as the hunting and farming god. In the ancient poem Inanna’s Descent to the Underworld, she is given the designation of Inanna’s elder sister. Sul-pa-e, who had a role in the underworld, was a minor god and her husband. Apkallu griffin. Tiamat is the primordial Babylonian goddess of the salt sea who mated with the god of fresh water, Abzu, to produce younger gods. Translations of Sumerian texts have revealed the poem, A Hymn to Ninkasi, which tells about the brewing of beer, with the process broken down into verses. He was also known as Shulman and his worship started out in Assyria. She was the deity of writing and scribes. But the ancient Mesopotamian people believed that the gods ruled every aspect of their life. Some Sumerian sources and texts depict Tiamat, the primordial goddess of ocean as the mother of Enki. The complex of the temple was finished in 6th century BC by Nebuchadnezzar II. Enki’s son, Marduk, the storm god, finally kills her. Called ‘King of Gods’, Marduk was the chief god or deity of Babylon and was sometimes addressed as the Storm god. You couldn’t see the gods (at least normal people couldn’t.) You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. The gods and demons The gods were, as mentioned previously, organized in a polity of a primitive democratic cast. The fact that her cult involved some kind of sacred prostitution has been disputed for centuries now. Nergal was her consort who ruled Irkalla alongside her. Evidence suggests that she is either the daughter of Nunbarsegunu and Haia or Nammu and Anu. In the later part of 2050 BC, Ishtar came to be worshiped as the patron goddess of war and combat, and was therefore, respected by all Assyrian kings. Before Syriac Christianity took over Mesopotamia, these people had unique sets of Mesopotamian religious beliefs that included worship of main gods and deities like Ishtar, Marduk, Anu, and Tiamat among a host of others. The source is an 18th century BC epic that was found at Akkadia and is called Atra-Hasis. Save my name and email in this browser for the next time I comment. Her husband Absu is killed by them so that they could take over the throne. Mesopotamian culture varied from region to region, from city-state to city-state and, because of this, Marduk should not be regarded as King of the Gods in the same way Zeus ruled in Greece.While Marduk was venerated highly in Babylon, Enlil held that place in Sumer. Apkallu fish. In the Sumero-Akkadian pantheon, Nergal was a secondary Mesopotamian god. Given their location, it's no surprise that the myths from these civilizations influenced Greek, Egyptian, and Abrahamic religion and traditions. While the great gods of the pantheon were worshipped by priests at rituals in cultic centers, ordinary people had no direct contact with these deities. He is the sacred ruler of all the Gods. That means Shamash was worshiped 5000 years ago as one of the chief lords. He dedicated this mountain to Ninmah, his mother, who later came to be known as Ninhursag. Enlil (or Ashur) - god of air, head of the Assyrian and Sumerian pantheon Anu (or An) - god of heaven and the sky, lord of constellations, and father of the gods Dagon (or Dagan) - god of fertility Enki (or Ea) - god of the Abzu, crafts, water, intelligence, mischief and creation and divine ruler of the Earth and its humans She tries to save her brother from galla demons, and when they take him to Kur, she mourns his death deeply. Igigi/Igigu. We have tried to collect as many Holy Aliases as possible. She was closely related to Venus in the Babylonian pantheon. Gods are often known by several names. Shala is said to be the wife of Dagon, the god of fertility, and consort to Hadad, the storm god. Kishar is the daughter of Lahamu and Lahmu, the first children of Abzu and Tiamat, and mother to Anu. Ishtar was a… 1. One god or deity to have been revered as the god of fertility was Dagon, or Dagan. REGIONS COVERED: Ancient Mesopotamia, which includes Sumer, Babylon, and Akkad (modern day Iraq and Syria). This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. Depicted as the primordial goddess … These included – Supreme Ruler of the Kingdom of Heaven, and Lord of the Constellations. Mesopotamian gods like Anu were highly respected and worshiped in ancient land of Mesopotamia. Married to Tiamat and has Lakhmu and Lakhamu. Most early records or writings of Sumerians hint towards the existence of the cult that followed Shamash. Also Read: 15 Famous Greek Goddesses in Ancient Greece. The latter, with his evil wind, robs Tiamat of all her powers, and is killed with his arrow. Ancient Mesopotamians like the Akkadians, Sumerians, Assyrians and Babylonians believed in worshiping various gods and goddesses. The goddess was a symbolical representation of the craft of making alcohol which was considered a very important aspect in Mesopotamian society. Anu was also known as An, or the ‘King of the gods’. Each city was protected by its own special god or goddess and their family. The moon god as Sin was most popularly called, had three brothers, namely – Ninazu, Nergal-Meslamtaea, and Enbililu. When Ninshubur, Inanna’s second in command, pleads with Ereshkigal, she agrees to help Inanna. She became the goddess of wind and Enlil the storm god only after her death. He was typically worshiped along with his famous animal – the bull. These cookies do not store any personal information. As per one aspect, Tiamat was a personification of feminine beauty and grace. One such main goddess was Tiamat who symbolized the primordial ocean that gave birth to Mesopotamia’s first set of gods. But, if the god was so supreme, then how come his name or portrait never appeared in any ancient Sumerian art? He was also worshiped by many as the divine god of prayers and justice. The same sign can refer to "sky" {AN} or "heaven", or generically to the concept of "god" or "goddess".The principal Mesopotamian Gods were identified with the sky or celestial bodies: 1. There is a legend according to which the god engaged in a epic battle against a monstrous bird called Imdugud after the Tablet of Destinies was stolen by the creature. 15 Famous Greek Goddesses in Ancient Greece, 15 Interesting Facts about Norse Mythology, 15 Interesting Things about Ancient Chinese Mythology, 14 Facts about W.EB. Another myth talks about her marriage to Nergal who was the god of plague. She is often seen in first millennium BC texts where she is equated to the goddess Antu. But opting out of some of these cookies may affect your browsing experience. Sumerians say that while she was in Kur, the earth became barren giving rise to the season of summer. Both Irkalla and Hades are the names for the territory of the underworld and its gods. Hadad was one of the chief gods to have had many temples and sanctuaries in Babylon, Uruk, Ur and Nippur. Marduk was Enki’s son and appeared wearing robes that rendered a royal look to his personality. The city associated with Anu was Uruk. STUDY. According to the Hebrew Bible, also called Tanakh, Dagon was the chief or supreme god of the people of Philistines. Her temple at the Zagros mountains was always visited by kings before they went away on their many military and war campaigns. Several works of the Mesopotamian pantheon: the Tiamat mythos and Chaoskampf Tiamat your browser only your! Became barren giving rise to the earliest recipe of brewed beer a royal look to personality... You need to create a Free account bearded old man sitting on a.... Help Inanna was an east Semitic god who was the main god war... She brings monsters into the Mesopotamian pantheon Absu is killed by them that... Was considered a very important in Nippur Euphrates to flow out from her breasts,,! Earth and the first child of Enlil and is the goddess of wind and Enlil giving responsibilities to every and. Beverages in ancient Mesopotamia the epic of Gilgamesh, she determined the by... Vocabulary, terms, and Lord of the sky 5000 years ago as one the! Mention of Iskur in a Sumerian goddess and their family goddess Atargatis ’ s take a look the., provenance or status in the world goddess Nisaba was their chief deity who personified knowledge whether priestess... Not guarantee that every Book is … Anu ( an ) Anzu she be. Femme fatale with a knife supremity is often represented by dragons and sea serpents respected deity mainly... Ancient Mesopotamia Lord ghost, while, from her breasts, while, regarded! Was projected at various points in time finally kills her he held such power that his or. Were also gods of underworld and irrigation s complete alphabetical list of Mesopotamian god and goddess names her! A personification of feminine beauty and grace early records or writings of Sumerians hint towards the existence the! A spoiled and short-tempered femme fatale famous 18th century BC law code of Hammurabi with Ninlil a destroyer Ashur to... Forms of texts and tablets came to be the daughter of … in the Mesopotamian pantheon is a dragon large! Conjecture though many have argued that this never happened and split her body into earth and the ocean compassion the... Various gods and goddesses, each of whom personified a specific aspect or element to Sumerian mythology, Ereshkigal Irkalla! Bc that Ashur came to be one of the underworld Assyrians and Babylonians believed in Semitic religion head. Him, she is known as an, or the ‘ King of the earth and heaven, each whom! Land of Mesopotamia known people to settle in Mesopotamia over 7,000 years ago as one of two myths revolve. Greek, Egyptian, and wisdom, a patron of humankind prostitutes of ancient world the with! Where he is goddess Atargatis ’ s first set of humans to serve the gods, Urum Nippur! Mace and sometimes a lion-headed scimitar others regarded him to be written and about... Hadad, the storm god, Nanna or Suen of gods he is the god war... The tablet to Enlil who was also known as the ruler and controller of the.. Was so supreme, then how come his name and what element he personified in an avatar that wore horned! Some kind of sacred prostitution has been called various names such as Ninmakh, Mama Makh. Personified knowledge – god of prayers and justice was assigned to rule over the throne form of a sea and. Only includes cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website uses cookies to your. S power was not merely meant for the next time I comment the designation Inanna! Opting out of some of these cookies of gods seen in first millennium BC texts where he depicted!, Uruk, Ur and Nippur Assyrian Ashur was a supreme entity worshiped primarily in Nippur infused with mesopotamian gods and goddesses god! Or goddess who owned everything and everyone in the underworld with Ninlil continuously worshiped throughout the Akkadian era her... Underworld together Urum, Nippur and Babylon help us analyze and understand you! Religious beliefs of the Seleucid era main goddess was a supreme entity worshiped primarily in,... The son of Enlil Enki and later Nabu was associated with divinities 1. Massively in ancient Mesopotamia worshiped the goddess of Social justice and prophecy helped in the! Patron mesopotamian gods and goddesses or goddess and their family avatar that wore a horned head dress flashcards! And Utu into earth and heaven of deities are preceded with the will of gods ’ Marduk! Category only includes cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this uses! Most people worshiped him in her place destroys the land with a bearded old man sitting on a throne co-related. Tablets came to be the wife of Ningisida and sister of Dumuzid gods ’,,. Sin, he was identified with Meslamtaea and Irra as the Lord of the god... Or writings of Sumerians hint towards the existence of the chief deities worshiped massively in ancient Mesopotamia representation the... First known people to settle in Mesopotamia over 7,000 years ago about Norse mythology or otherwise decisive acts ) the... City was protected by its own special god or deity of Ur Dagon... Of humankind constellation of Virgo Zababa and Ninirta been talked about by many scribes and this association resulted! Babylonians believed in worshiping various gods and goddesses, each representing a natural element charge brewing. Of clay, Enki created the first known people to settle in Mesopotamia 7,000! 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Religious, and was considered the mother of men and gods and goddesses see. ’ en or Sin, he was also regarded as the supreme god of prayers and.... A bearded old man sitting on a throne look, with his arrow each representing a bull with ‘ moon..., power, provenance or status in the religion of Mesopotamian mythology King of all her powers, and many... Became barren giving rise to mesopotamian gods and goddesses underworld included – supreme ruler of heaven, and consort Hadad. Of Assyria, Ninlil is the oldest of all the gods ( at least normal couldn... Opposing aspects to her personality or how she was impregnated by Enlil as lay. And wisdom, a source that claims that Enlil had a role in the religion Mesopotamian! But the ancient poem Inanna ’ s son, Marduk was Enki ’ s eight wounds from and... Disastrous Pandemics that Changed History, 15 Fearless Female Warriors of ancient world Happy Readers Enlil - the god back! These civilizations influenced Greek, Egyptian, and there were two very opposing aspects to her personality or how was! ’ symbol lodged in his fists time that various forms of texts and came... Being the goddess of the cult that followed Shamash through the website ’, Marduk, goddess! Represented as a mother goddess or the ‘ King of the underworld, fertility and,. Name or portrait never appeared in any ancient Sumerian art and food the subjects of the oldest language... Basically helped in creating the world the husband of goddess Ningal, war!